Utopia
داستان کوتاه انگلیسی ،داستان کوتاه صوتی ، ادبیات انگلیسی، اشعار انگلیسی و ...
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The Strength of God

Sherwood Anderson

 
THE REVEREND Curtis Hartman was pastor of the Presbyterian Church of Winesburg, and had been in that position ten years. He was forty years old, and by his nature very silent and reticent. To preach, standing in the pulpit before the people, was always a hardship for him and from Wednesday morning until Saturday evening he thought of nothing but the two sermons that must be preached on Sunday. Early on Sunday morning he went into a little room called a study in the bell tower of the church and prayed. In his prayers there was one note that always predominated. “Give me strength and courage for Thy work, O Lord!” he pleaded, kneeling on the bare floor and bowing his head in the presence of the task that lay before him.    1
  The Reverend Hartman was a tall man with a brown beard. His wife, a stout, nervous woman, was the daughter of a manufacturer of underwear at Cleveland, Ohio. The minister himself was rather a favorite in the town. The elders of the church liked him because he was quiet and unpretentious and Mrs. White, the banker’s wife, thought him scholarly and refined.    2
  The Presbyterian Church held itself somewhat aloof from the other churches of Winesburg. It was larger and more imposing and its minister was better paid. He even had a carriage of his own and on summer evenings sometimes drove about town with his wife. Through Main Street and up and down Buckeye Street he went, bowing gravely to the people, while his wife, afire with secret pride, looked at him out of the corners of her eyes and worried lest the horse become frightened and run away.    3
  For a good many years after he came to Winesburg things went well with Curtis Hartman. He was not one to arouse keen enthusiasm among the worshippers in his church but on the other hand he made no enemies. In reality he was much in earnest and sometimes suffered prolonged periods of remorse because he could not go crying the word of God in the highways and byways of the town. He wondered if the flame of the spirit really burned in him and dreamed of a day when a strong sweet new current of power would come like a great wind into his voice and his soul and the people would tremble before the spirit of God made manifest in him. “I am a poor stick and that will never really happen to me,” he mused dejectedly, and then a patient smile lit up his features. “Oh well, I suppose I’m doing well enough,” he added philosophically.    4
  The room in the bell tower of the church, where on Sunday mornings the minister prayed for an increase in him of the power of God, had but one window. It was long and narrow and swung outward on a hinge like a door. On the window, made of little leaded panes, was a design showing the Christ laying his hand upon the head of a child. One Sunday morning in the summer as he sat by his desk in the room with a large Bible opened before him, and the sheets of his sermon scattered about, the minister was shocked to see, in the upper room of the house next door, a woman lying in her bed and smoking a cigarette while she read a book. Curtis Hartman went on tiptoe to the window and closed it softly. He was horror stricken at the thought of a woman smoking and trembled also to think that his eyes, just raised from the pages of the book of God, had looked upon the bare shoulders and white throat of a woman. With his brain in a whirl he went down into the pulpit and preached a long sermon without once thinking of his gestures or his voice. The sermon attracted unusual attention because of its power and clearness. “I wonder if she is listening, if my voice is carrying a message into her soul,” he thought and began to hope that on future Sunday mornings he might be able to say words that would touch and awaken the woman apparently far gone in secret sin.    5
  The house next door to the Presbyterian Church, through the windows of which the minister had seen the sight that had so upset him, was occupied by two women. Aunt Elizabeth Swift, a grey competent-looking widow with money in the Winesburg National Bank, lived there with her daughter Kate Swift, a school teacher. The school teacher was thirty years old and had a neat trim-looking figure. She had few friends and bore a reputation of having a sharp tongue. When he began to think about her, Curtis Hartman remembered that she had been to Europe and had lived for two years in New York City. “Perhaps after all her smoking means nothing,” he thought. He began to remember that when he was a student in college and occasionally read novels, good although somewhat worldly women, had smoked through the pages of a book that had once fallen into his hands. With a rush of new determination he worked on his sermons all through the week and forgot, in his zeal to reach the ears and the soul of this new listener, both his embarrassment in the pulpit and the necessity of prayer in the study on Sunday mornings.    6
  Reverend Hartman’s experience with women had been somewhat limited. He was the son of a wagon maker from Muncie, Indiana, and had worked his way through college. The daughter of the underwear manufacturer had boarded in a house where he lived during his school days and he had married her after a formal and prolonged courtship, carried on for the most part by the girl herself. On his marriage day the underwear manufacturer had given his daughter five thousand dollars and he promised to leave her at least twice that amount in his will. The minister had thought himself fortunate in marriage and had never permitted himself to think of other women. He did not want to think of other women. What he wanted was to do the work of God quietly and earnestly.    7
  In the soul of the minister a struggle awoke. From wanting to reach the ears of Kate Swift, and through his sermons to delve into her soul, he began to want also to look again at the figure lying white and quiet in the bed. On a Sunday morning when he could not sleep because of his thoughts he arose and went to walk in the streets. When he had gone along Main Street almost to the old Richmond place he stopped and picking up a stone rushed off to the room in the bell tower. With the stone he broke out a corner of the window and then locked the door and sat down at the desk before the open Bible to wait. When the shade of the window to Kate Swift’s room was raised he could see, through the hole, directly into her bed, but she was not there. She also had arisen and had gone for a walk and the hand that raised the shade was the hand of Aunt Elizabeth Swift.    8
  The minister almost wept with joy at this deliverance from the carnal desire to “peep” and went back to his own house praising God. In an ill moment he forgot, however, to stop the hole in the window. The piece of glass broken out at the corner of the window just nipped off the bare heel of the boy standing motionless and looking with rapt eyes into the face of the Christ.    9
  Curtis Hartman forgot his sermon on that Sunday morning. He talked to his congregation and in his talk said that it was a mistake for people to think of their minister as a man set aside and intended by nature to lead a blameless life. “Out of my own experience I know that we, who are the ministers of God’s word, are beset by the same temptations that assail you,” he declared. “I have been tempted and have surrendered to temptation. It is only the hand of God, placed beneath my head, that has raised me up. As he has raised me so also will he raise you. Do not despair. In your hour of sin raise your eyes to the skies and you will be again and again saved.”   10
  Resolutely the minister put the thoughts of the woman in the bed out of his mind and began to be something like a lover in the presence of his wife. One evening when they drove out together he turned the horse out of Buckeye Street and in the darkness on Gospel Hill, above Waterworks Pond, put his arm about Sarah Hartman’s waist. When he had eaten breakfast in the morning and was ready to retire to his study at the back of his house he went around the table and kissed his wife on the cheek. When thoughts of Kate Swift came into his head, he smiled and raised his eyes to the skies. “Intercede for me, Master,” he muttered, “keep me in the narrow path intent on Thy work.”   11
  And now began the real struggle in the soul of the brown-bearded minister. By chance he discovered that Kate Swift was in the habit of lying in her bed in the evenings and reading a book. A lamp stood on a table by the side of the bed and the light streamed down upon her white shoulders and bare throat. On the evening when he made the discovery the minister sat at the desk in the dusty room from nine until after eleven and when her light was put out stumbled out of the church to spend two more hours walking and praying in the streets. He did not want to kiss the shoulders and the throat of Kate Swift and had not allowed his mind to dwell on such thoughts. He did not know what he wanted. “I am God’s child and he must save me from myself,” he cried, in the darkness under the trees as he wandered in the streets. By a tree he stood and looked at the sky that was covered with hurrying clouds. He began to talk to God intimately and closely. “Please, Father, do not forget me. Give me power to go tomorrow and repair the hole in the window. Lift my eyes again to the skies. Stay with me, Thy servant, in his hour of need.”   12
  Up and down through the silent streets walked the minister and for days and weeks his soul was troubled. He could not understand the temptation that had come to him nor could he fathom the reason for its coming. In a way he began to blame God, saying to himself that he had tried to keep his feet in the true path and had not run about seeking sin. “Through my days as a young man and all through my life here I have gone quietly about my work,” he declared. “Why now should I be tempted? What have I done that this burden should be laid on me?”   13
  Three times during the early fall and winter of that year Curtis Hartman crept out of his house to the room in the bell tower to sit in the darkness looking at the figure of Kate Swift lying in her bed and later went to walk and pray in the streets. He could not understand himself. For weeks he would go along scarcely thinking of the school teacher and telling himself that he had conquered the carnal desire to look at her body. And then something would happen. As he sat in the study of his own house, hard at work on a sermon, he would become nervous and begin to walk up and down the room. “I will go out into the streets,” he told himself and even as he let himself in at the church door he persistently denied to himself the cause of his being there. “I will not repair the hole in the window and I will train myself to come here at night and sit in the presence of this woman without raising my eyes. I will not be defeated in this thing. The Lord has devised this temptation as a test of my soul and I will grope my way out of darkness into the light of righteousness.”   14
  One night in January when it was bitter cold and snow lay deep on the streets of Winesburg Curtis Hartman paid his last visit to the room in the bell tower of the church. It was past nine o’clock when he left his own house and he set out so hurriedly that he forgot to put on his overshoes. In Main Street no one was abroad but Hop Higgins the night watchman and in the whole town no one was awake but the watchman and young George Willard, who sat in the office of the Winesburg Eagle trying to write a story. Along the street to the church went the minister, plowing through the drifts and thinking that this time he would utterly give way to sin. “I want to look at the woman and to think of kissing her shoulders and I am going to let myself think what I choose,” he declared bitterly and tears came into his eyes. He began to think that he would get out of the ministry and try some other way of life. “I shall go to some city and get into business,” he declared. “If my nature is such that I cannot resist sin, I shall give myself over to sin. At least I shall not be a hypocrite, preaching the word of God with my mind thinking of the shoulders and neck of a woman who does not belong to me.”   15
  It was cold in the room of the bell tower of the church on that January night and almost as soon as he came into the room Curtis Hartman knew that if he stayed he would be ill. His feet were wet from tramping in the snow and there was no fire. In the room in the house next door Kate Swift had not yet appeared. With grim determination the man sat down to wait. Sitting in the chair and gripping the edge of the desk on which lay the Bible he stared into the darkness thinking the blackest thoughts of his life. He thought of his wife and for the moment almost hated her. “She has always been ashamed of passion and has cheated me,” he thought. “Man has a right to expect living passion and beauty in a woman. He has no right to forget that he is an animal and in me there is something that is Greek. I will throw off the woman of my bosom and seek other women. I will besiege this school teacher. I will fly in the face of all men and if I am a creature of carnal lusts I will live then for my lusts.”   16
  The distracted man trembled from head to foot, partly from cold, partly from the struggle in which he was engaged. Hours passed and a fever assailed his body. His throat began to hurt and his teeth chattered. His feet on the study floor felt like two cakes of ice. Still he would not give up. “I will see this woman and will think the thoughts I have never dared to think,” he told himself, gripping the edge of the desk and waiting.   17
  Curtis Hartman came near dying from the effects of that night of waiting in the church, and also he found in the thing that happened what he took to be the way of life for him. On other evenings when he had waited he had not been able to see, through the little hole in the glass, any part of the school teacher’s room except that occupied by her bed. In the darkness he had waited until the woman suddenly appeared sitting in the bed in her white night-robe. When the light was turned up she propped herself up among the pillows and read a book. Sometimes she smoked one of the cigarettes. Only her bare shoulders and throat were visible.   18
  On the January night, after he had come near dying with cold and after his mind had two or three times actually slipped away into an odd land of fantasy so that he had by an exercise of will power to force himself back into consciousness, Kate Swift appeared. In the room next door a lamp was lighted and the waiting man stared into an empty bed. Then upon the bed before his eyes a naked woman threw herself. Lying face downward she wept and beat with her fists upon the pillow. With a final outburst of weeping she half arose, and in the presence of the man who had waited to look and not to think thoughts the woman of sin began to pray. In the lamplight her figure, slim and strong, looked like the figure of the boy in the presence of the Christ on the leaded window.   19
  Curtis Hartman never remembered how he got out of the church. With a cry he arose, dragging the heavy desk along the floor. The Bible fell, making a great clatter in the silence. When the light in the house next door went out he stumbled down the stairway and into the street. Along the street he went and ran in at the door of the Winesburg Eagle. To George Willard, who was tramping up and down in the office undergoing a struggle of his own, he began to talk half incoherently. “The ways of God are beyond human understanding,” he cried, running in quickly and closing the door. He began to advance upon the young man, his eyes glowing and his voice ringing with fervor. “I have found the light,” he cried. “After ten years in this town, God has manifested himself to me in the body of a woman.” His voice dropped and he began to whisper. “I did not understand,” he said. “What I took to be a trial of my soul was only a preparation for a new and more beautiful fervor of the spirit. God has appeared to me in the person of Kate Swift, the school teacher, kneeling naked on a bed. Do you know Kate Swift? Although she may not be aware of it, she is an instrument of God, bearing the message of truth.”   20

  Reverend Curtis Hartman turned and ran out of the office. At the door he stopped, and after looking up and down the deserted street, turned again to George Willard. “I am delivered. Have no fear.” He held up a bleeding fist for the young man to see. “I smashed the glass of the window,” he cried. “Now it will have to be wholly replaced. The strength of God was in me and I broke it with my fist.”

Plot summary

"The Strength of God" tells the story of the Reverend Curtis Hartman, the prosperous and popular minister of Winesburg's Presbyterian Church. Reverend Hartman is in the habit of writing sermons in his church's bell tower; looking out the tower window one day, he spies a young woman named Kate Swift, a local school teacher, lying on a bed in a nearby house. Hartman had married the first girl he courted, and has thus had limited experience with women. Kate Swift soon has a bizarre hold over him. His sermons become more passionate and personal as he wrestles with sexual temptation, and he finds himself going up to the bell tower at random times, in the hope of catching a glimpse of her. This temptation plagues him terribly, but he cannot find a way to free himself of it. Eventually, one January night, he goes up to the bell tower, deciding that he will give himself entirely to sin. She does not appear for a long time, and the coldness in the tower causes him nearly to freeze to death. Suddenly Kate's figure appears in the window. She is naked, and as he watches, she throws herself down and begins to pray. This sight delivers the minister from his sexual desire for her, and in a wild sense of release, he runs outside and dashes about in snowy Winesburg. Finding George Willard in the newspaper office, he seizes the young man and tells him that Kate Swift is an instrument of God, and that upon seeing her, he broke the bell tower window, for "the strength of God was in me."

Commentary

"The Strength of God" is a simple story of temptation with a powerful twist at the end. The Reverend Curtis Hartman, as Anderson presents him, is a simple, stolid man. He is a successful but hardly inspiring minister without any particularly deep sense of faith. His sudden temptation comes from an unlikely source, since he has never been a lustful man; he is so awkward with women, in fact, that his wife courted him more than he courted her. The incredibly alluring vision of Kate Swift, however, creates an inner turmoil that he has never before experienced. Neither prayer nor his own will can restore him until he reaches the moment of crisis, when he begins to consider giving in to temptation. At that point, God (or Sherwood Anderson) sends him a new vision, in which his temptress prays, naked. Having already been lured by her neck and shoulders, Hartman is suddenly allowed to see her entire nude form. The forced juxtaposition of her physical attractiveness and the purity of her devoutness destroys his temptation utterly, replacing it with the sense that he has received a vision from God. His experience is a reversal of the tragedy of the other religious man in Winesburg, Jesse Bentley. Whereas the pious Jesse goes to great lengths to set up conditions in order to accommodate a transmission of God's communication, Hartman finds a divine message not in the heights of religious fervor, but in the depths of sin and despair.
 
The transition from "The Strength of God" to "The Teacher" is one of the few instances in Winesburg, Ohio in which two stories overlap one another. The reader experiences the same snowy night in each story, but from a different perspective. "The Teacher" offers greater insight into Kate Swift,who is merely objectified in "The Strength of God." Her cold exterior belies an underlying loneliness and a desire, like all of the women of Winesburg, to be loved. In her case, this desire plays itself out in her relationship with George, who was once her star pupil, and in whom she recognizes the "spark of genius." As a result, her feelings toward him are a combination of wanting to mentor him and wanting to embrace him. George cannot quite understand her conflicting sentiments, and finds her conduct baffling. His sense of confusion, of having not understood "something important" about Kate Swift, contrasts sharply with Reverend Hartman, for whom she is the agent of epiphany, making everything clear to him. Anderson implies, however, that neither man really has an understanding of her; she is too complex to fit a role based solely on how she functions for others.
 

 ترجمه داستان

عالی‌جناب کورتیس هارت‌من ده‌سالی می‌شد که کشیش کلیسایِ پر ِس‌بیتریان وینزبورگ بود.چهل‌ساله بود و طبیعت ساکت و صبوری داشت.پیش از موعظه برایِ مردم در جای‌گاه می‌ایستاد،که اغلب از آن رنج‌ فراوانی می‌برد و از صبح چارشنبه تا غروب یک‌شنبه به ‌هیچ چیز نمی‌اندیشید جز دو اندرزی که می‌بایست هر یک‌شنبه بالایِ منبر برود.همین یک‌شنبه صبح بود که به اتاق کوچک مطالعه در برج ناقوس رفت و نماز خواند.در عبادات‌ش هم‌واره یک ذکر غالب بود:«پرودگارا، لیاقت و شهامت انجام چنین کاری را در من قرار ده.»...به‌زانو و تعظیم بر کف لخت ، پیش از ادایِ هرگونه تکلیفی استغاثه می‌کرد.

کشیش هارت‌من قدی بلند و ریش قهوه‌ای داشت.هم‌سر-اش زنی ستبر ؛ عصبی و دختر یک کارگر تولیدیِ زیرپوش در کلیو‌لند ِاوهایو بود.کشیش در شهر چهره‌ای موجه از خود ساخته بود.قدیمی‌هایِ کلیسا او را دوست داشتند چون خموش و متواضع بود و خانوم وایت ،زن بانک‌دار،او را به چشم طلبه‌ای پرهیزگار می‌دید.

کلیسایِ پرس‌بیتریان خود را از اخبار دیگر کلیساهایِ وینزبورگ دور نگاه می‌داشت.جلال و جبروت و مواجب خادم‌اش بیش از جاهایِ دیگر بود.او حتا درشکه‌ای شخصی داشت که بعضی ‌از غروب‌هایِ تابستان‌، هم‌سر-اش را با آن به شهر می‌برد.از خیابان اصلی تا خیابان باک‌آی را زیرپا می‌گذاشت و خاضعانه بر ره‌گذران تعظیم می‌کرد، درحالی‌که هم‌سر-اش،در آتشی از فخر پنهان، او را گوشه چشمی می‌پایید و دل‌نگران وحشت اسب و رم‌کردن‌اش بود.

کورتیس هارت‌من سال‌هایِ خوشی را در وینزبورگ گذراند.کسی نبود تا با روضه‌خوانی در کلیسایش شوری میان جماعت نمازگزار به‌پا کند و بی‌خود دشمن بتراشد.

تا اینجا ترجمه شده!!!!!!!!!!!

زندگی نامه شروود اندرسون

شروود اندرسن يكي از هفت فرزند يراق ساز و رنگ كار تابلوهاي تبليغاتي ، در كامدن اوهايو چشم به جهان گشود . در كودكي به سبب فقر، دبستان را رها كرد و براي فراهم كردن نان خانواده به مشاغل زيادي روي آورد . در همين دوران با كارگران مزارع،رنگ كارهاي محلي و مشتري جلب كنهاي ميدان مسابقات آشنا شد . زندگي اين گونه افراد بعدها دستمايه بسياري از داستان هاي او گرديد . در نوزده سالگي به دنبال كار به شيكاگو و ديگر شهرهاي غرب ميانه امريكا رفت . سپس به گارد ملي پيوست و در پايان جنگ امريكا و اسپانيا به كوبا اعزام گرديد . پس از بازگشت از كوبا ، در سن بيست و سه سالگي ، يك سالي را به دبيرستان رفت . سپس در شيكاگو در كار نوشتن اعلانهاي تبليغاتي موفقيتي كسب كرد . در 1907 كارخانه رنگسازي اندرسن را در يكي از شهرهاي اوهايو داير كرد. مدت پنج سال در كار ساخت و ساز فروش رنگ بي رقيب بود و شهرت و موفقيت كسب كرد. روزي ناگهان در ميان ديكته كردن نامه اي به منشي خود از دفتر و كارخانه پا به بيرون گذاشت . چند روز بعد خود را در بيمارستان بستري يافت . ضعف اعصابي كه او را دچار كرده بود ، مطابق يادداشت هاي اندرسن محملي شد تا او در سي و شش سالگي راه گريزي بيابد ، رفاه طبقه متوسط را رها كند و به جهان هنر كشيده شود . اندرسن به شيكاگو رفت و در آنجا به نوشتن سرگرم شد . مي نويسد : « پاهاي من از ماندن بيش از حد در رودخانه سرد ، مرطوب و سنگين شده و اكنون مي خواهم مدتي بر زمين قدم بزنم .» در شيكاگو به ياري كارل سندبرگ و اردگار لي ماسترز در كار نوشتن شور و شوقي يافت و آغوش مجلات زيادي را به روي خود گشوده بود . رمان فرزند ويندي مك فرسن او داستان پسرك روستايي تهيدستي است كه كارخانه داري موفق از كار درمي آيد اما، به دنبال كشف حقيقت، روياهاي موفقيت مادي را به كناري مي افكند . اين درونمايه گهگاه در ديگر آثارش نيز خودي نشان مي دهد . از همين رو بود كه معاصران اندرسن او را هنرمندي انقلابي مي شناختند . اندرسن پيشرو آن دسته از نويسندگاني بود كه ، با پشت سرگذاردن وحشت هاي جنگ جهاني اول ، ارزش هاي نسل پيشين را به دور انداخته بودند و آزادي فردي را ارج مي نهادند و معتقد بودند كه جامعه امروز انسان را از رسيدن به كمال باز مي دارد . اين نويسندگان در ميان تمدن از هم گسيخته ، بيهوده ، در پي يافتن ارزشها و مفاهيم آرماني خويش بودند . شروود اندرسن يكي از هفت فرزند يراق ساز و رنگ كار تابلوهاي تبليغاتي ، در كامدن اوهايو چشم به جهان گشود . در كودكي به سبب فقر، دبستان را رها كرد و براي فراهم كردن نان خانواده به مشاغل زيادي روي آورد . در همين دوران با كارگران مزارع،رنگ كارهاي محلي و مشتري جلب كنهاي ميدان مسابقات آشنا شد . زندگي اين گونه افراد بعدها دستمايه بسياري از داستان هاي او گرديد . در نوزده سالگي به دنبال كار به شيكاگو و ديگر شهرهاي غرب ميانه امريكا رفت . سپس به گارد ملي پيوست و در پايان جنگ امريكا و اسپانيا به كوبا اعزام گرديد . پس از بازگشت از كوبا ، در سن بيست و سه سالگي ، يك سالي را به دبيرستان رفت . سپس در شيكاگو در كار نوشتن اعلانهاي تبليغاتي موفقيتي كسب كرد . در 1907 كارخانه رنگسازي اندرسن را در يكي از شهرهاي اوهايو داير كرد. مدت پنج سال در كار ساخت و ساز فروش رنگ بي رقيب بود و شهرت و موفقيت كسب كرد. روزي ناگهان در ميان ديكته كردن نامه اي به منشي خود از دفتر و كارخانه پا به بيرون گذاشت . چند روز بعد خود را در بيمارستان بستري يافت . ضعف اعصابي كه او را دچار كرده بود ، مطابق يادداشت هاي اندرسن محملي شد تا او در سي و شش سالگي راه گريزي بيابد ، رفاه طبقه متوسط را رها كند و به جهان هنر كشيده شود . اندرسن به شيكاگو رفت و در آنجا به نوشتن سرگرم شد . مي نويسد : « پاهاي من از ماندن بيش از حد در رودخانه سرد ، مرطوب و سنگين شده و اكنون مي خواهم مدتي بر زمين قدم بزنم .» در شيكاگو به ياري كارل سندبرگ و اردگار لي ماسترز در كار نوشتن شور و شوقي يافت و آغوش مجلات زيادي را به روي خود گشوده بود . رمان فرزند ويندي مك فرسن او داستان پسرك روستايي تهيدستي است كه كارخانه داري موفق از كار درمي آيد اما، به دنبال كشف حقيقت، روياهاي موفقيت مادي را به كناري مي افكند . اين درونمايه گهگاه در ديگر آثارش نيز خودي نشان مي دهد . از همين رو بود كه معاصران اندرسن او را هنرمندي انقلابي مي شناختند . اندرسن پيشرو آن دسته از نويسندگاني بود كه ، با پشت سرگذاردن وحشت هاي جنگ جهاني اول ، ارزش هاي نسل پيشين را به دور انداخته بودند و آزادي فردي را ارج مي نهادند و معتقد بودند كه جامعه امروز انسان را از رسيدن به كمال باز مي دارد . اين نويسندگان در ميان تمدن از هم گسيخته ، بيهوده ، در پي يافتن ارزشها و مفاهيم آرماني خويش بودند . اينان كه به نويسندگان رنسانس شيكاگو شهرت يافته بودند، با دي . اچ . لارنس هم عقيده بودند كه مي گفت تمدن تحمل ناپذير است و تنها انسان هاي اوليه اند كه در كنار طبيعت به خوشبختي واقعي دست يافته اند . سياهپوست اندرسن در رمان خنده تلخ (1925)، با آن روابط نزديك كه نبض طبيعت در آن شنيده مي شود ، با مكزيكي هاي لارنس در رمان مار آراسته (1926) ، پهلو مي زند. اندرس در 1917 مردان حركت را كه رماني است درباره ناحيه زغال خيز پنسيلوانيا منتشر كرد و مجموعه شعر ترانه هاي امريكاي ميانه را در 1918 انتشار داد. مجموعه داستان وانزبرگ اوهايو (1919) اندرسن را به شهرت رساند . اين داستن ها بررسي هايي روانشناختي از زندگي در شهرهاي كوچك امريكاست . برخي از آنها ، همچون «دستها» با حال و هوايي شاعرانه نوشته شده و برخي ديگر آكنده از اندوهي است كه چون نخي نامرئي در سراسر داستان كشيده شده است . واينزبرگ اوهايو كمابيش به شيوه تصوير هنرمند در جواني جيمز جويس نوشته شده است . جورج ويليارد، يكي از ساكنان واينزبرگ ، درصدد نويسنده شدن است و بسياري از افراد تنهاي آنجا دشواريهاي خود را براي او تعريف مي كنند. جورج به ياري روايت هاي آنهاست كه از درون آدمها با خبر مي شد . با اين همه ،درمي يابد كه كاري از او ساخته نيست . انزواي انساني يكي از سه عنصري است كه داستانهاي كتاب را به يكديگر پيوند مي دهد . درك محدود و ناقص ناظر، همواره با تفسير نمادين جزئيات از داستان هاي واينزبرگ اوهايو اثري زيبا ، گيرا و ماندني پديد آورده است . همين ويژگي هاي كار استاد بود كه بر همينگوي و فاكنر تاثير گذارد و آنان را شيفته او كرد. داستان كوتاه «دست ها » يكي از داستان هاي واينزبرگ اوهايو ، داستان دست هايي است كه نوميدانه در جستجوي رابطه و در آغوش گرفتن ديگران گشوده شده است . اما اين دست هاي گشوده جهان را از عشق و رابطه تهي مي يابند . اندرسن در 1921 پس از انتشار رمان سفيد درمانده راهي اروپا شد و در آنجا با جيمز جويس ديدار كرد. مدتي بعد در نيوارلئان ويليام فاكنر را «كشف» كرد . پيروزي تخم مرغ و اسب ها و مردها بهترين مجموعه داستان هاي او ، پس از واينزبرگ اوهايو، به شمار مي آيند . اندرسن ازدواج هاي بسيار را در 1923 و مجموعه داستان مرگ در جنگل را در 1933 انتشار داد. رمان هاي شروود اندرسن به خلاف داستان هاي كوتاه و از گيرايي چنداني برخوردار نيستند زيرا او به قالبي كه در آن آدم هاي داستان به ياري كنش ساخته شوند دست نمي يابد بلكه در پيشبرد رمان خود از تحليل هاي دور و دراز سود مي جويد . آثار اندرسن ، در دهه 1920 ، در امريكا از شهرتي وسيع برخوردار بود. طبقه تحصيلكرده امريكا او را تحسين مي كرد و اين اقبال و هيجان بيست سالي به درازا كشيد . تنها در سا ل1941 بودكه لاينل تريلينگ ، منتقد نام آور امريكا ، جرات يافت بر شهرت او بتازد . با اين همه ، اعتبار دستاوردهاي هنري او براي جهان داستان نويسي پابرجاست . چاپ و انتشار خاطرات شروود اندرسن به سال 1969 و نيز انتشار برخي ديگر از آثارش كه با ويرايش مجدد ارائه گرديد و با پذيرش همگاني مواجه شد گواه اين مدعاست . «مرگ در جنگل»، «مي خواهم بدانم چرا» ، «تخم مرغ» ، «چراغ هاي روشن نشده» و «مردي كه زن شد» از بهترين داستان هاي كوتاه او به شمار مي آيند . اندرسن در نوشتن داستان كوتاه به شيوه اول شخص بسيار توانا بود . داستان كوتاه «مي خواهم بدانم چرا» يكي از قويترين داستان هايي است كه به شيوه اول شخص نوشته شده . اين شيوه كه مارك تواين نخستين بار آن را در هكلبري فين ارائه كرد ، در واقع ، پيروزي داستان نويسان امريكايي است. كمتر داستان كوتاهي توانسته است به گزندگي «مي خواهم بدانم چرا» بي گناهي كودكي را كه به جهان فساد كشانده مي شود تصوير كند . شروود اندرسن در 1941 در پاناما چشم از جهان فرو بست . او در پي جستجوهاي بسيار سرانجام روزي گفته بود :« جهان طرحي براي خلق معشوقه هاي ما ندارد .» شرح مكمل : "شرود اندرسن " يكي از اصيل ترين نويسندگان امريكايي است كه با بنا نهادن اسلوب تاره اي در داستان نويسي ، يكي دو نسل از نويسندگان جوان امريكايي را تحت تاثير قرار داد. "اندرسن" به سال 1876 در شهر "كامدن" از ايالت "اوهايو" به دنيا آمد. چهارمين فرزند از هفت فرزند خانواده خود بود. در چهارده سالگي مدرسه را ترك گفت تا با پيدا كردن شغلي به خانواده خود ياري برساند. در سال 1896 به شيكاگو رفت و به كار هاي گوناگون از مهتري گرفته تا كارگر مزرعه و كارخانه مشغول شد. دو سال بعد به "گارد ملي" پيوست و طي جنگ اسپانيا_ امريكا در كوبا خدمت كرد. پس از بازگست به امريكا ، در سال 1899 ، تحصيلاتش را ادامه داد و چندي به كار تبليغاتي در شيكا گو پرداخت و بعد مديريت يك كارخانه رنگ سازي را به عهده گرفت. در سال 1912 با رها كردن شغل خود تمامي اوقات زندگي اش را وقف نوشتن كرد و به كانوني از نويسندگان به نام " رنسانس شيكاگو"پيوست كه در آن " كارل سند برگ" و "واچل ليندسي" و "تئودور درايزر" عضويت داشتند.به "درايزر" ارادت ميورزيد و از او نظر مي گرفت. در سال 1919 كتاب "واينزبرگ اوهايو" را نوشت و از آن زمان به بعد بود كه سرشناس شد. ساير آثارش عبارتند از " سفيد بينوا"(1920) و دو مجموعه داستان كوتاه به نامهاي " پيروزي تخم مرغ"(1921) و " اسبها و مردها"(1923). " ادموند ويلسون" منتقد معروف ، آثار "اندرسن" و " گرترود استاين" و " ارنست همينگوي " را هم ريشه و متعلق به يك مكتب خاص مي داند و مي گويد:"مشخصات اين مكتب ، زبان ساده و بي پيرايه اي است كه اغلب از لحن و گفتار عاميانه شخصيتها در مي گذرد و در واقع براي بيان عواطف عميق و حالتهاي غامض ذهني و رواني به كار مي رود." موضوع و درونمايه آثارش، زندگي آدمها در شهرهاي كوچك است كه بيشتر از تجربيات شخصي خود او و تماسش با اينگونه آدمها مايه گرفته و آميخته با عصياني است عليه آنچه او حرمتي ظاهري و تصنعي مي نامد. مهمترين كتابش همان " واينزبرگ اوهايو" است كه شامل بيست و سه طرح نسبتا كوتاه از بررسي دقيق شخصيتهاي گوناگون يك شهر كوچك است و نمايانگر ديد و بينش دروني و مهارت او در داستان پردازي است و شايد بيشتر از هر كتاب ديگر بر يكي دو نسل از نويسندگان جوان امريكايي تاثير گذاشت. "همينگوي" و ""فاكنر" هر دو شديدا از شيوه و اسلوب او در نويسندگي تاثير گرفتند و "فاكنر" درباره او گفته است:" اندرسن پدر نسل ما نويسنگان امريكايي و نيز نسل بعد از ماست." "فاكنر" همچنين در مقدمه كتاب " سارتوريس" نوشت:" براي شروود اندرسن كه به لطف او اولين نوشته من چاپ شد با اين اميد كه اين كتاب دليلي باشد ، براي عدم تاسف او از اين بابت ". "اندرسن " در آن زمان. " فاكنر" و "همينگوي" را نويسندگان بزرگ آينده امريكا مي شناخت و آنها را سخت مي ستود و منتقدين كهنه پرست مخالف نوشته هاي آنها را مي كوبيد و با ناشرين بر سر چاپ كتابهاشان كلنجار مي رفت. " اندرسن" اولين كسي بود كه داستان كوتاه امريكايي را از محدوديتها و قيد و بندهاي اسلوب كلاسيك قرن نوزدهمي با طرحهاي دقيقا ساخته و پرداخته شده و شخصيت پردازيهاي قراردادي آزاد كرد.او در داستانهاي كوتاهش ، شيوه بياني تازه اي بكار گرفت كه در آن سبك آزاد، طرح يا پيرنگ ، تابع و تحت الشعاع درونمايه و قالب داستان زاييده و رشد يافته وضع و موقعيت داستان است_ شيوه اي ساده و روشن براي شرح و بيان غموض و پيجيدگيهاي زندگي بشري بويژه در لحظاتي كه انسان از راز طبيعت و ماهيت و سرشت خويشتن آگاه مي شود.بيشتر داستانهاي كوتاه او ،نقب دلسوزانه اي است به درون ذهن آدمياني كه تحت فشارها و قيد و بندهاي اجتماعي ، نا توان از درك و تشخيص تواناييهاي واقعي خويش اند، آدمياني مسحور و مقهور پيچيدگيهاي عصر صنعت و تكنولوژي. " اندرسن" به سال 1914 ،در شصت و پنج سالگي ،بدرود حيات گفت

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