Utopia
داستان کوتاه انگلیسی ،داستان کوتاه صوتی ، ادبیات انگلیسی، اشعار انگلیسی و ...
لینک دوستان

 

How to Summarize a Research Article

Research articles use a standard format to clearly communicate information about an experiment. A research article usually has seven major sections: Title, Abstract, Introduction, Method, Results, Discussion, and References.

Determine your focus 

The first thing you should do is to decide why you need to summarize the article. If the purpose of the summary is to take notes to later remind yourself about the article you may want to write a longer summary. However, if the purpose of summarizing the article is to include it in a paper you are writing, the summary should focus on how the articles relates specifically to your paper.

Reading the Article

Allow enough time. Before you can write about the research, you have to understand it. This can often take a lot longer than most people realize. Only when you can clearly explain the study in your own words to someone who hasn’t read the article are you ready to write about it.

Scan the article first. If you try to read a new article from start to finish, you'll get bogged down in detail. Instead, use your knowledge of APA format to find the main points. Briefly look at each section to identify:

·         • the research question and reason for the study (stated in the Introduction)

·         • the hypothesis or hypotheses tested (Introduction)

·         • how the hypothesis was tested (Method)

·         • the findings (Results, including tables and figures)

·         • how the findings were interpreted (Discussion)


برچسب‌ها: کارشناسی ارشد آموزش زبان انگلیسی, خلاصه نویسی مقالات, زبان انگلیسی
ادامه مطلب
[ یکشنبه بیست و یکم مهر 1392 ] [ ] [ سعید ضروری ]

زبان آموزانی که برای درس روش تحقیق نیاز به نمونه تحقیق دارند فایل زیپ شده را در ادامه مطلب دانلود کنند

http://www.vafl.ir/images/logo-vafl.jpg

سال نو مبارک


برچسب‌ها: روش تحقیق, نمونه روش تحقیق, اصول و روش تحقیق
ادامه مطلب
[ جمعه چهارم فروردین 1391 ] [ ] [ سعید ضروری ]

The Reading Process

Reading is much more than simple word identification, reading is a process of making sense of print.  Efficient reading is creating that comprehension with the least amount of effort.  However, while we read in order to comprehend, comprehension is not the end goal, or the peak of the pyramid, in the reading process.  In fact, there is no end goal, comprehension is not the summit of a mountain that a reader tries to climb.  If this were the case then once that summit, or goal, were reached there would be nowhere to go but down.  On the contrary, the reading process cannot have comprehension as it's peak, because once comprehension is reached, it becomes part of the readers new "theory of the world".  The reader will then relate all new information to this "theory of the world" in order to construct further meaning.  Therefore, instead of viewing the reading process as a pyramid, or a mountain to be climbed with "comprehension" at its peak, it is more accurate to view reading as a cyclical process.  While comprehension may be a goal of reading, that comprehension then becomes the foundation on which future meaning can be constructed.  The ultimate goal, or rather the ultimate by-product, of this reading process is actually life-long learning.  Nevertheless, in order to increase the likelihood that comprehension will occur when transacting with texts, a foundation of four basic building blocks must be in place.  This foundation includes the reader himself, reading strategies, classroom environment, and student interest.


ادامه مطلب
[ یکشنبه دوازدهم اردیبهشت 1389 ] [ ] [ سعید ضروری ]

If you're trying to write an essay, this five paragraph model might help get you started. The sample essay is about computers. The first paragraph introduces the topic.

Paragraph 1: Introduces the topic

Example

Computer technology has significantly changed how we live and how we work. At least, that's what my parents tell me. I'm too young to know what life was like for them without computers. I know only how computers are part of my life.

Now that you've introduced the topic, your next step is to discuss your first idea.

Paragraph 2: One idea


ادامه مطلب
[ چهارشنبه یازدهم آذر 1388 ] [ ] [ سعید ضروری ]

یك كتاب مخصوص برای آن‌ها كه دوست دارند نوشتن مقاله به زبان انگلیسی را یاد بگیرند.دانلود کتاب این كتاب تمام مبانی و مقدمات نوشتن مقاله برای روزنامه‌ها، مجلات، و خبر نامه‌ها را شرح می‌دهد و انواع مقاله‌نویسی، انواع مختلف مقالات، و نوشتن در حال و هوا‌های متفاوت را تشریح می‌سازد. این كتاب به درد دانشجویان روزنامه نگاری و وسایل ارتباطات جمعی می‌خورد تا دوره‌های پیشرفته‌ی نوشتن مقاله را فراگرفته و تاثیر قلم خود را به بهترین شكل به نمایش بگذارند.

این كتاب در قطع پی‌دی‌اف و 520 صفحه در حدود دو و نيم مگابایت حجم دارد.اما اگر اطلاعات بیشتری در مورد این كتاب می خواهید می‌توانید از آمازون بازدید کنید...

 

برای دانلود به ادامه مطلب بروید... 


ادامه مطلب
[ سه شنبه هفتم مهر 1388 ] [ ] [ سعید ضروری ]

گاهی اوقات بهتر است به نویسندگی به چشم حرفه‌ی تجاری نگاه كنید. نوشتن انگلیسیبه این شكل، نویسندگان و ویراستاران می‌توانند از روی یك طرح كار كرده و از ابزاری كه در روی میزشان وجود دارد، استفاده كنند. شما می‌توانید هر وقت كه دوست دارید، وسیله‌ی مورد نظرتان را قرض بگیرید، اما برخلاف چكش، رنده، و اره ابزارهای نویسندگی را هرگز لازم نیست پس بدهید. این كتاب مجموعه‌ای از 50 توصیه و فوت و فن نویسندگی است كه هر كدام‌شان می‌توانند یك قدم شما را به هنر نویسندگی –چه داستان و چه مقاله- نزدیك‌تر نمایند.

این كتاب در قطع پی‌دی‌اف و 140 صفحه در حدود 500 كیلوبایت حجم دارد كتابی كه به چندین و چند بار خواندن می‌ارزد.برای بازدید از غرفه‌ی این كتاب نیز می‌توانید از آمازون بازدید فرمایید...

 

برای دانلود به ادامه مطلب بروید...


ادامه مطلب
[ سه شنبه هفتم مهر 1388 ] [ ] [ سعید ضروری ]

کتاب الکترونیکی- مهارت دو نوشتن

نوشتن مهارتی است كه با رعایت یك سری قواعد ساده می‌توان در آن مهارت پیدا كرد. این كتاب به خوانندگان خود كمك می‌كند كه مشكلات مربوط به صرف افعال، ضمایر و هم‌چنین اصول و مبانی سبك را فرابگیرند. مثال‌های روز‌مره‌ای كه در این كتاب آمده است به شما كمك می‌كنند مهارت‌های نوشتن را در رابطه با كار، مدرسه و در مكاتبات شخصی خود به خوبی یاد بگیرید. با درس‌هایی كه تنها روزی 20 دقیقه باید صرف هركدام از آن‌ها كنید، می‌توانید با كم‌ترین زمان تمرین‌ها و مثال‌های ارایه شده را به خوبی تكمیل كرده و همه‌ی این‌ها را مدیون چنین كتاب ارزشمندی بدانید.

این كتاب در قطع chm و 199 صفحه در حدود 500 كیلوبایت حجم دارد و برای دریافت آن كافی است به ادامه‌ی متن تشریف ببرید. برای بازدید از غرفه‌ی این كتاب نیز می‌توانید به آمازون سر بزنید...

 

برای دانلود به ادامه مطلب بروید...


ادامه مطلب
[ سه شنبه هفتم مهر 1388 ] [ ] [ سعید ضروری ]

Loving Someone You Would Like to Love

“One word frees us of all the weight and pain of life: That word is love.” – Sophocles, 496-406 B.C.

“What most people need to learn in life is how to love people and use things, instead of using people and loving things.” – Author Unknown.

“Love suffers long and is kind; love does not envy; love does not parade itself, is not puffed up; does not behave rudely, does not seek its own, is not provoked, thinks no evil; does not rejoice in iniquity, but rejoices in the truth; bears all things believes all things, hopes all things, endures all things. Love never fails.” – Bible, New King James Version, 1 Chronicles 13:4-8.

 


ادامه مطلب
[ چهارشنبه هشتم اسفند 1386 ] [ ] [ سعید ضروری ]
 

خانواده ها باید تا ۱۸ ماهگی تنها زبان مادری را آموزش دهند، ۳۶ ماهگی بهترین زمان یادگیری زبان دوم و سوم است.

خانواده ها باید تا ۱۸ ماهگی تنها زبان مادری را آموزش دهند، ۳۶ ماهگی بهترین زمان یادگیری زبان دوم و سوم است. به گزارش ایسنا، گفتار درمانی وظیفه ارزیابی، تشخیص، درمان و مشاوره بیماران با اختلالات ارتباطی، كلامی، گفتاری و زبانی را برعهده دارد، بر اساس تعریف سازمان بهداشت جهانی، كم توانی شامل آسیب دیدگی فرد است كه به دنبال آن مجموعه ای از محدودیت ها و كاهش مشاركت فعال فرد به وجود می آید. همچنین توان بخشی یعنی رساندن به حداكثر توان مندی فكری، فیزیكی، روانی و كاركردهای اجتماعی فرد جهت رسیدن به استقلال نسبی است.


ادامه مطلب
[ شنبه یکم دی 1386 ] [ ] [ سعید ضروری ]

How to improve your vocabulary?

 

 

I hope this would be useful for you to improve your vocabulary. These are a few methods which all need work, time, and enthusiasm.

 

How to improve your vocabulary?

 

Following are a few methods for expanding your vocabulary with words you will fell comfortable using. Try one or more of these at your convenience. The ones that seem most appealing will probably work best for you.


ادامه مطلب
[ یکشنبه هجدهم آذر 1386 ] [ ] [ سعید ضروری ]

Reading and Listening Are The Keys To Unconscious Communications

Many English learners believe that they must memorize all or most of the rules of English grammar in order to be able to speak it correctly. Some students and teachers even think that studying grammar is a “shortcut” or faster way to improve someone’s English. Unfortunately, this is usually not true, especially for speaking and listening. When you are speaking or listening, you usually don’t have time to stop and think about specific grammar rules consciously. If you did, you would have to speak…very…slowly…like…this! Most of what we use when we communicate is “unconscious”; that is, we use knowledge that we don’t have to think about or even know the rules for.

Here’s a very important point to understand: The best way to be able to use good grammar is to listen and to read English you can understand. Most native speakers of English can’t explain to you the rules of grammar, but they can speak and write English without any problems. How is this possible? Because they have listened and read a lot of English, and they “know” the rules unconsciously, without having to think about them. For you to get this same ability, you only need to listen and read as much as you can in English.

http://esl-advices.blogspot.com

 

[ پنجشنبه سوم آبان 1386 ] [ ] [ سعید ضروری ]

To speak or not to speak, that is the question

 
A friend is making a decision that you fear will hurt him. Should you say something? You may have done so in a similar situation in the past, only to have received an "it's none of your business" look in response. What should you do? Speak up or keep quiet? Do loyalty and the desire to help require you to speak your mind, or does respect for the person's privacy require you to say nothing? Tough question.

All you'll get from strangers is surface pleasantry or indifference.
Only someone who loves you will criticize you.
- Judith Christ

Be who you are and say what you feel because those
who mind don't matter and those who matter don't mind.
- Santiz

Ask yourself how sure you are of your opinion. Do you have facts and personal experience or are you operating on a hunch? Criticizing someone is no small matter and many people don't take it lightly. But it you are sure of your judgment and can help prevent a friend from making a mistake then it is not an option but an obligation to speak up.

Do you have your facts together? Be courageous and speak up!

**True friends are those who care without hesitations, who remember without limitations, who give without expectations and love even without communication. Friendship doesnt need everyday conversation doesnt always need togetherness, as long as the
relationship is kept in the heart,true friends never go apart....... ...** Sadat Moshtaghian

[ سه شنبه سوم مهر 1386 ] [ ] [ سعید ضروری ]

روش اعجاب انگیز آموزش زبان انگلیسی!

 

"واقعیت این است که روشهایی برای یادگیری بهتر وجود دارند، روانشناسان با پژوهش های چندین ساله به این واقعیت رسیده اند که چگونگی فرآیند یادگیری از خود فرآیند یادگیری مهم تر است و از این رو باید به روش آموزشی که انتخاب می کنیم توجه ویژه ای داشته باشیم."

احتمالا شما هم این روزها با تبلیغات مختلفی در مجلات و اینترنت برخورد کرده اید که ادعا می کنند زبان انگلیسی را به طور معجزه آسا و در مدتی کوتاه به شما آموزش می دهند. انگلیسی در خواب، آموزش با امواج آلفا، روش X، روش MGM-PLN و ده‌ها اسم نا آشنا و جدید دیگر. ما در مورد این شیوه‌ها ابراز نظر نمی کنیم چون هرگز آنها را تجربه نکرده ایم اما اگر نگاهی به این نوع تبلیغات بیندازید می بینید که اساس همه آنها استفاده تبلیغاتی از تمایل افراد برای یادگیری سریع و بی دردسر زبان است. مسلما همه مشغله‌های درسی و کاری زیادی دارند و یا خود را برای آزمونی آماده می کنند که وقت چندانی تا آن باقی نمانده است. در این هنگام همه می خواهند به بهترین و سریعترین روش به یادگیری زبان بپردازند، اما برخی متاسفانه به این واقعیت توجه نمی کنند که اگر این روش‌های معجزه آسا واقعیت داشت، الان می بایست در بسیاری از کالج‌ها و مدارس دنیا که هر روز به دنبال شیوه‌های مدرن تر هستند به طور گسترده از این روشها استفاده می شد و حال آنکه شیوه‌های سنتی آموزش همچنان به قوت خود باقی هستند و شما هیچ خبری از موفقیت این شیوه‌ها در اخبار و تحقیقات پژوهشی نمی بینید.

اما واقعیت چیست؟

 آیا همه این شیوه‌ها کذب محض است؟


ادامه مطلب
[ دوشنبه بیست و هشتم خرداد 1386 ] [ ] [ سعید ضروری ]

Using English Newspapers in the ESL/EFL Classroom


Premakumari Dheram
Central Institute of English and Foreign Languages (
Hyderabad, India)
premakumaridheram{at}gmail.com

Nitya Rani
Osmania University
(Hyderabad, India)
nityarani{at}yahoo.com

 

This paper documents how the newspaper may be used for promoting learner autonomy in an international classroom with varying levels of English proficiency. It highlights how the authentic use of the language use helps the ESL/EFL teacher turn the newspaper into a powerful tool for encouraging reflections on its relevance to language learning. Similarly, the activities demonstrate how the students’ imaginative and creative potential could be exploited for enthusiastic interaction in the class.  The focus on meaning and the familiarity with the genre seem to help every learner, irrespective of his/her proficiency in English, participate actively and contribute significantly to the discussions. It may not be out of place to mention here that there are English classrooms in remote areas where the teacher has to be extremely resourceful. And, at such places, we may use old newspapers if the day’s newspaper is not available.


ادامه مطلب
[ دوشنبه بیست و هشتم خرداد 1386 ] [ ] [ سعید ضروری ]

 

Becoming a better speaker

 

Becoming a better speaker What speakers do In some ways speaking is the most difficult language skill. Every time you speak you have to do many different things but you have very little time to do them. Imagine, for example, that the teacher has asked you a question in class. Here is a list of the things you have to do when giving an answer.

You have to:  


ادامه مطلب
[ دوشنبه بیست و هفتم فروردین 1386 ] [ ] [ سعید ضروری ]

Becoming a better listener

 

Becoming a better listener You spend more time in school listening than doing any other activity. It is important that you understand most of what you hear so that you can learn about your different subjects and at the same time improve your English. In order for you to become a better listener, look first at the following list. It contains many of the things that can make it hard for you to understand what you hear:


ادامه مطلب
[ یکشنبه بیست و ششم فروردین 1386 ] [ ] [ سعید ضروری ]

Improving Teacher-Student Interaction in the EFL Classroom: An Action Research Report

Jonathan Snell
j_snell [at] yahoo.com
Toyo Women's College (
Tokyo, Japan)

A common problem for EFL teachers is dealing with a passive class, where students are unresponsive and avoid interaction with the teacher. This is especially true when a teacher seeks interaction in a teacher-class dialog, such as asking questions to the class as a whole, expecting at least one student to respond. This can be a frustrating experience for both parties. Obviously, there will be times when no student can answer a teacher's question, but often students do not answer even if they understand the question, know the answer, and are able to produce the answer. Furthermore, students can often be very reluctant to give feedback or ask the teacher a question in front of the class. This action research project attempted to explore this problem and sought to create a more interactive teacher-class interchange in one class of Japanese adult English learners.


ادامه مطلب
[ دوشنبه سیزدهم فروردین 1386 ] [ ] [ سعید ضروری ]

Teaching Second Language Reading Strategies

 

Takako Kawabata
takakok [at] psis {dot} aichi-gakuin {dot} ac {dot} jp
Aichi Gakuin University (Nisshin, Japan)

Introduction

 

This article describes a program that can be used for EFL classes to teach reading strategies.  The objectives of the program are that the students should be able to understand the text structure of a particular genre, find the main idea in the text, learn new vocabulary and learn effective reading strategies to develop their reading comprehension.  

 

In classroom interaction, a shift between teacher and learner focus is made to provide the teacher's support and guidance at earlier stages and gradually withdraw the teacher's focus to assist students in becoming more independent learners.  As some students may be shy when speaking and afraid of making mistakes in front of the class or peers, whole class, groups, and pair discussion are implemented at the earlier stages to minimize their anxiety.


ادامه مطلب
[ چهارشنبه دوم اسفند 1385 ] [ ] [ سعید ضروری ]

Promoting Learners' Speaking Ability by Socioaffective Strategies

Chou, Yen-Lin
yenlinch [at] usc.edu
The University of Southern California (Los Angeles, California, USA)

 

This paper aims to point out the efficiency of socioaffective strategies on Asian students' speaking competence. This paper outlines the level of strategy use by language learners and particularly emphasizes on the use of socioaffective strategies that language learners frequently overlook. By adapting the five phases of the CALLA instructional sequence (Chamot & O'Malley, 1994; Chamot et al., 1999, as cited in Chamot, 1999), the paper illustrates a useful way for language learners (especially Asian learners) and teachers to know how to make good use of soicoaffective strategies in promoting speaking ability.

 

Introduction

 

Language learning strategies are broadly conceptualized as cognitive, metacognitive, and socioaffective strategies (O'Malley & Chamot, 1990; Oxford, 1990). Students consciously or unconsciously employ language learning strategies in language learning. Nevertheless, a number of research studies (Chamot & Küpper, 1989; Goh & Kwah, 1997) have discovered that students rarely utilize socioaffective strategies. These studies provide the evidence that learners overlook the efficiency of socioaffective strategies (Chamot & Küpper, 1989; Goh & Kwah, 1997).

 

All too often, language learners neglect the effectiveness of socioaffective strategies. Therefore, the integration of socioaffective strategies into classes should be taken into serious consideration. The paper stresses on those following issues:

  • What effective applications can language teachers integrate socioaffective strategies into classes in order to promote Asian students' speaking ability?
  • What useful implications can language learners and teachers employ when using language learning strategies in language learning?

 


ادامه مطلب
[ چهارشنبه هجدهم بهمن 1385 ] [ ] [ سعید ضروری ]

Tips on Studying a Foreign Language

Learning another language is not easy, but most people can learn a second language IF they are willing to put in the necessary time. Here are some practical suggestions for studying effectively, overcoming anxiety, and learning the grammar and skills necessary for success in foreign language classes.

  1. STUDY EVERY DAY! A foreign language course is different from any other course you take. Language learning is cumulative: you cannot put it off until the weekend. Study 1 or 2 hours for every class hour if you want an A or B.
  2. DISTRIBUTE YOUR STUDY TIME in 15- to 30-minute periods throughout the day. Focus on a different task each time: vocabulary now, grammar next, etc. Get an overview during the first half hour: spend 10 minutes reviewing dialog, 10 minutes learning new vocabulary, 10 minutes learning new grammar...so you'll at least have looked at it all. Approximately 80% of your study time should be spent in recitation or practice, including practice in the language lab.
  3. ATTEND AND PARTICIPATE IN EVERY CLASS--even if you are not well prepared. Class time is your best opportunity to practice. Learn the grammar and vocabulary outside of class in order to make the most of class time. Spend a few minutes "warming up" before each class by speaking or reading the language.
  4. MAKE YOURSELF COMFORTABLE IN THE CLASSROOM. Get to know your classmates, so you will feel you are among friends. Visit your instructor during office hours to get acquainted: explain your goals and fears about the course to your instructor.
  5. LEARN GRAMMAR IF YOU DON'T ALREADY KNOW IT. Grammar is the skeleton of a language, its basic structure: you must learn it. Review a simplified English grammar text. Compare new grammatical structures in your foreign language to their English equivalents.
  6. PRACTICE FOR TESTS by doing what you will have to do on the test. If the test will require you to write, then study by writing--including spelling and accents. If you will be asked to listen, then practice listening. Ask for practice questions; make up your own test questions. Invent variations on patterns and forms. Over-learn: study beyond the point of recognition to mastery.
  7. DEVELOP A GOOD ATTITUDE. Have a clear personal reason for taking the class. Set personal goals for what you want to learn. Leave perfectionism at the door; give yourself permission to make mistakes and learn from them.
  8. GET HELP IF YOU NEED IT. Talk with your teacher. Form study groups among class members. Use tutoring services. Don't wait!

READING and WRITING a foreign language are analytical skills. You may be good at these if you are a logical person who attends to detail. Train yourself through practice to notice and remember details such as accents and gender agreement.

READING SKILLS TIPS:

  1. First, read the vocabulary list for the assignment. Next, read the questions about the reading. Then read all the way through a new passage two or three times, guessing at meaning from context. Avoid word-by-word translation. It is a waste of time!
  2. Isolate new vocabulary and study it separately. DON'T write between the lines! Make flash cards. Carry them with you and recite them several times during the day at odd moments. Overlearn them until they are automatic.
  3. Isolate new grammatical forms and study them separately. Write the pattern on a flash card and memorize it. Write out and label a model sentence. When you encounter the form while reading, pause and recite the pattern to recognize the form.

 

WRITING SKILLS TIPS:

  1. Pay attention to detail: notice accents, order of letters, etc. Compare letter-by-letter different forms (singular, plural, gender, etc.). Write out conjugations of verbs, declensions of pro-nouns, etc., and check your endings. Memorize irregular verbs.
  2. To master spelling, have a friend dictate 10 words to you. Write them out and immediately have your friend spell them correctly aloud while you look carefully and point at each letter. Repeat until you get all the words right.
  3. Write (in your own simple foreign vocabulary words) a story you have just read.


LISTENING and SPEAKING are performance skills. You may do well at these if you are naturally outgoing. Students in foreign language classes often have difficulty hearing and speaking because they are anxious about making mistakes. It's OK to make mistakes! Have fun trying to speak!

LISTENING SKILLS TIPS:

  1. Frequent the language lab. Read the exercises in your book first; then listen and read together; then listen without looking at the print. Say aloud/write what you hear.
  2. Participate silently in class when others are called on to speak. Focus on the task; don't worry about how you'll do.
  3. If you feel nervous, relax yourself physically by taking a couple of slow, deep breaths. When called on, pause, relax, and give yourself time to respond.
  4. Listen while a friend dictates to you and write what you hear. Check for accuracy.
  5. Practice: join language clubs, watch foreign TV, listen to foreign radio.


SPEAKING SKILLS TIPS:

  1. Study out loud! Mimic the sounds of the language. Don't mumble. Although most people feel embarrassed making strange sounds, the language will soon feel more familiar to you.
  2. When called on in class, say something, even it it's wrong: you'll learn from it. If you need a moment to think, repeat the question. If you don't know the answer, say in your foreign language, "I don't know" or "help!"
  3. Practice with a foreign student who wants your help to learn English or with another class member

 

[ جمعه هشتم دی 1385 ] [ ] [ سعید ضروری ]

Tips: Ways to Create Humor in the Classroom

Effective teachers use humor in the classroom to motivate students to learn, enhance group cohesion, and defuse tense situations. Here are a few ways you can bring humor into your classroom:

FOCUS ON THE POSITIVE.

Adopting a light, playful mind set helps establish a warm, safe learning environment.

PRACTICE VERBAL AND NONVERBAL PLAYFULNESS.

Use facial animation: smile, make lively expressions, and let your eyes sparkle. Use comfortable body language and a relaxed voice. Make sure your nonverbal messages match your verbal messages. (For example, if you say something intended as humor, but your body language is serious, your students could perceive sarcasm.)

USE HUMOR IN A STYLE THAT IS COMFORTABLE FOR YOU.

There are many ways to be humorous, and some styles may suit you more than others. Choose a style that feels natural to you.

KEEP A "HUMOR" JOURNAL.

Write down instances of when you used humor that worked well. Reflect on what happened and why your humor was well-received. Consider how you might employ that same type of humor in the future.

TARGET YOURSELF, NOT STUDENTS.

To avoid a sense of threat, the safest target for humor is yourself, not your students.

USE HUMOR TO DEFUSE TENSION.

Develop your ability to read your students' tension levels. When you sense tension, try to defuse it by making a humorous remark or telling a funny story. (Note: This approach is most successful when a tense situation begins; once the tension has had time to grow, humor may not be an effective technique.)

TIE YOUR HUMOR TO THE CONTENT.

Humor does not have to be a diversion or digression from curriculum. Whenever possible, weave humor into what your students are already learning. (See examples below.)

CLASSROOM EXAMPLES

Here are some ways to tie humor to content:

  • Rewrite a familiar song to incorporate facts your students are learning. (For example, rewrite "Row, Row, Row Your Boat," replacing the simple lyrics with more difficult synonyms from your students' vocabulary list.)
  • Have your students demonstrate understanding of a book, play, or textbook chapter they've read by writing a humorous, modernized version. (For example, students could write a summary of "Hamlet" and perform it as a rap for the class.)
  • Put up a bulletin board and invite students to bring in humorous portrayals of a subject they're studying. (For example, jokes, cartoons, limericks, and so on.)
  • Create puns and mix metaphors when discussing a subject of study, and have your students create their own. This exercises their creativity as well as checking for comprehension. In the words of humor educator Joel Goodman, "Humor and creativity are intimately related -- there is a connection between HAHA and AHA."

Give the gift of humor to your students in one of the above ways, or tap into your own imagination for innovative ways to bring the many benefits of humor to your students' learning experiences.  

Source : Humor in the Classroom

[ شنبه بیستم آبان 1385 ] [ ] [ سعید ضروری ]
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